Javanese is an Austronesian language of the Western Malayo-Polynesian branch spoken by over 90 million people in Indonesia. Despite the fact that it is the tenth largest language according to the number of native speakers, Javanese is vastly understudied, most notably in other dialects besides ‘Standard’ Javanese, which is spoken in Yogyakarta and Solo in Central Java.

The following is a list of references for linguistics in Javanese compiled by Thomas Conners and I, with a focus on syntax, in an effort to help disseminate studies on Javanese. If you have any other references to add, please feel free to contact me and I will update it!

Modern Studies in Javanese

Adelaar, K. Alexander and Nikolaus P. Himmelmann (eds).  2005.  The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar.  London: Routledge.

Badib, Abbas A. 1980. Some major constructions in Javanese. Ph.D. dissertation. Monash University, Melbourne.

Cole, Peter, Yurie Hara, and Ngee Thai Yap.  2008.  Auxiliary Fronting in Peranakan Javanese.  In Journal of Linguistics 44: 1043.

Cole, Peter, and G. Hermon, K. Inoha, and Yassir Tjung.  2003.  A Constraint on WH in situ in Javanese.  In Proceedings of the Austronesian Formal Linguistics Association, MITWPL 44: Cambridge MA.

Cole, Peter, Gabriella Hermon, Yassir Tjung, Chang-Yong Sim, and Chonghyuck Kim.  2007.  Anaphoric Expressions in the Peranakan Javanese of Semarang. LINCOM Studies in Asian Linguistics 72.

Cole, Peter, G. Hermon, C. Kim, C. Sim, Y. Tjung, and Y. Tsai.  2006.  Anaphoric Expressions in Peranakan Javanese : a Comprehensive Database. University of Utrecht, The Netherlands (electronic publication)., 2006

Cole, Peter, Jonczyk, Elizabeth, and Lilley, Jason. 2000. A Note on Extraction from Object Position in Javanese and other Javanic languages. In Proceedings of the Austronesian Formal Linguistics Association VI.

Conners, Thomas J. 2008. Tengger Javanese. Ph.D. dissertation. Yale University.

Conners, Thomas J.  2013.  Javanese Undressed: Isolating Phenomena in ‘Peripheral’ Dialects.  In Austronesian Undressed ed. by David Gil and John McWhorter. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter.

Dardjowidjojo, Soenjono.  1978.  Some aspects of Indonesian and Javanese Linguistics.  University of Hawai’i: Manoa.

Davies, William D. 1990. Against an ergative analysis of Eastern Javanese. ESCOL 1990, 79-89.

Davies, William D. 1995. Javanese adversatives, passives and Mapping Theory. Journal of Linguistics 31, 15-31.

Davies, William D.  1999.  Madurese and Javanese as strict word order languages.  In Oceanic Linguistics 38.1.

Davies, William D., and Dresser, Craig A. (2005). The structure of Javanese and Madurese determiner phrases. In UCLA Working Papers in Linguistics, no. 12, 57-71.

Errington, J. Joseph.  1985.  Language and Social Change in Java: Linguistic Reflexes of Modernization in a Traditional Royal Polity. Ohio: Ohio University Centre for International Studies.

Errington, J. Joseph.  1988.  Structure and Style in Javanese: A Semiotic View of Linguistic Etiquette.  University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia.

Errington, J. Joseph.  1999.  Shifting Languages: Interaction and Identity in Javanese Indonesia.  Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Errington, J. Joseph.  2007.  Linguistics in a Colonial World: A Story of Language, Meaning and Power.  Blackwell Press: London.

Ewing, Michael.  2005.  Grammar and inference in conversation: identifying clause structure in spoken Javanese.  Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Ewing, Michael.  2005.  Hierarchical constituency in conversational language: The case of Cirebon Javanese.  In Studies in Language 29.189-112.

Ewing, Michael.  2003.  Two verbs of giving in Cirebon Javanese Conversation.  In T. Nakayama, T. Ono, and H. Tao eds, Recent Studies in Empirical Approaches to Language. Santa Barbara Papers in Linguistics vol. 12, 3-21.

Ewing, Michael.  2001.  Reference and Recovery in Cirebon Javanese Conversation.  In Australian Journal of Linguistics 21.1: 25-47.

Ewing, Michael. 1995.  Two pathways to identifiability in Cirebon Javanese.  Special Session on Discourse in Southeast Asian Languages of Berkeley Linguistics Society 21:72-82.

Goebel, Zane. 2002. Code choice in interethnic interactions in two urban neighborhoods of Central Java, Indonesia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 158:69-87.

Goebel, Zane. 2005. An Ethnographic Study of Code Choice in Two Neighbourhoods of Indonesia. Australian Journal of Linguistics 25:85-107.

Ishizuka, Tomoko. 2009. Deriving the order of constituents in the Javanese DP. Ms.,

Gustianingsih. 2008. Modalitas dan Evidensialitas Bahasa Jawa. Jurnal Ilmiah Bahasa dan Sastra 4:48-54.

Hoogervorst, Tom Gunnar. 2008. Describing Surabaya’s Linguistic Ecology. M.A. Thesis, Leiden University.

Janse, Mark.  2004.  In Memoriam, Eugenius Marius Uhlenbeck 1913-2003.  In Oceanic   Linguistics vol. 43.

Kullanda, Sergey.  2008.  Old Javanese Kinship Terminology: Some Historical-      Typological Implications.  In Lander and Ogloblin, eds.

Lander, Yuri and Alexander K. Ogloblin, eds.  2008.  Language and Text in the Austronesian World: Studies in Honor of Ulo Sirk.  LIMCOM: GmbH.

Miyake, Yoshimi.  2011.  Reduplication in Javanese.  In Asian and African Languages and Linguistics No 6. Tokyo, Japan.

Nurhayani, Ika.  2012.  Javanese Applicative Construction.  In Coyote Papers 19: University of Arizona Linguistics Circle.

Ogloblin, Alexander K. 2001. ‘Imperative constructions in Javanese’. In Victor S. Xrakovskij, ed. Typology of imperative constructions, pp. 221-42. Munich: Lincom Europa.

Ogloblin, Alexander K. 2005. Javanese. In Adelaar and Himmelmann eds.

Obloblin, Alexander K. 2008.  In Search of Middle Javanese.  In Lander and Ogloblin eds.

Poedjosoedarmo, Gloria. 1977. Thematization and Information Structure in Javanese. In NUSA, Miscellaneous Studiess in Indonesian and Languages in Indonesia, ed. Amran Halim, 34-43. Jakarta: Lembaga Bahasa Universitas Atma Jaya.

Poedjosoedarmo, Gloria R. 1986. Role structure in Javanese. Jakarta: Badan Penerbit NUSA, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atmajaya.

Ramelan. 1983. Javanese indicative and imperative passives. In Halim, A., Carrington, L. & Wurm, S.A. (eds) Papers from the Third International Conference on Austronesian Languages, 199-214. Canberra: Australian National University

Robson, Stuart.  1995.  Patterns of Variation in Colloquial Javanese.  Monash University  Southeast Asian Studies Working Papers.

Robson, Stuart and Yacinta Kurniasih.  2000.  Describing character in Javanese: Three grammatical categories.  In KITLV Bijdragen 156.2 297-302.

Sato, Yosuke.  2008.  Minimalist Interfaces: Selected Issues in Indonesian and Javanese.  Dissertation: University of Arizona.

Sato, Yosuke.  2007. The Distribution of the Active Voice Morphology in Javanese and vP Phases.  In Proceedings of 37th Western Conference on Linguistics.  UC San Diego.

Siegel, James T.  1986.  Solo in the New Order: Language and Hierarchy in an Indonesian City.  Princeton University Press: Princeton.

Sirk, Ulo. 1996. On the History of Transitive Verb Suffixes in the Languages of

Western Indonesia. In Steinhauer, H. ed., Papers in Austronesian Linguistics:3.191-205.

Smith-Hefner, Nancy. 1983. Language and social identity: Speaking Javanese in Tengger. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan.

Smith-Hefner, Nancy.  2009.  Language Shift, Gender, and Ideologies of Modernity in Central Java, Indonesia.  In Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 19.1, 57-77.

Soemarmo, Marmo. 1970. Subject-predicate, focus-presupposition, and topic-comment in Bahasa Indonesia and Javanese. Ph.D. dissertation, UCLA.

Sofwan, Ahmad.  2001. Javanese Passives, Ergatives and Adversatives.  In La Trobe Papers in Linguistics Vol 11:8. 

Sofwan Ahmad.  2010.  Applicative Constructions in Javanese.  In Linguage Circle: Journal of Language and Literature. Vol 5.1.  Semarang, Java.

Stoel, Ruben.  2006.  The intonation of Banyumas Javanese.  In Proceedings of Speech Prosody 2006, 827-830.  Dresden: TUD Press.

Sudiroatmadja, Martin Hardaja. 1992. Javanese word formation: A generative grammar approach, Georgetown University: Ph.D. dissertation.

Suharno, Ignatius. 1982. A descriptive study of Javanese. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

Sumukti, Rukmantoro Hadi. 1971. Javanese morphology and morphophonemics, Cornell University: Ph.D. dissertation.

Tadmor, Uri. 2003. Final /a/ mutation: a borrowed areal feature in western Austronesian languages. In Issues in Austronesian Historical Phonology, John Lynch ed. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

Thurgood, Ela. 2004. Phonation Types in Javanese. In Oceanic Linguistics 43.2:277-295.

Uhlenbeck, E.M. 1964. The Languages of Java and Madura. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

Uhlenbeck, E.M. 1975. Sentence segment and word group: Basic concepts of Javanese syntax. In NUSA 1, ed. J.W.M. Verhaar, 6-10. Jakarta: NUSA.

Uhlenbeck, E.M. 1978. Studies in Javanese morphology. The Hague: Martinus Nihoff.

Uhlenbeck, E.M. 1983.  Javanese Linguistics: a retrospect and some prospects.  Foris Publications: Dordrecht.

Vander Klok, Jozina. 2008. Modality in Javanese. In CLA Annual Conference Proceedings, ed. Susi Jones, 1-15. University of British Columbia:

Vander Klok, Jozina. 2012. Tense, aspect, and modality in Paciran Javanese, McGill University: Ph.D.

Vander Klok, Jozina. 2013. Pure possibility and pure necessity modals in Paciran Javanese. Oceanic Linguistics 52:2.

Wolff, John. 1997. Peranakan Chinese speech and identity. Indonesia 64:29-44.

Wolff, John U. and Soepomo Poedjosoedarmo. 1982. Communicative Codes in Central Java. Ithaca: Southeast Asia Program.

Wolfowitz, Claire S. 1983. Styles of speech in Suriname-Javanese, John Hopkins University: Ph.D. dissertation.

Wolfowitz, Clare.  1992.  Language Style and Social Space: Stylistic Choice in Surinam Javanese.  University of Illinois Press: Springfield.

Publications from the PPPB, Jakarta (Pusat Perkembangan dan Pembangunan Bahasa)

Arifin, Syamsul, 1990. Tipe-tipe Klausa Bahasa Jawa. Jakarta: PPPB

Effendi, S. 1981. Beberapa Masalah Sintaksis Bahasa Jawa. Jakarta: PPPB.

Ekowardono, B. Karno, Suprapti, Hartono, Bambang, and Setyono. 1999. Modalitas dalam bahasa jawa. Jakarta: PPPB

Iskandarwassid, Et.Al. 1985. Struktur Bahasa Jawa Dialek Banten. Jakarta: PPPB.

Kosadi Hidayat, 1992. Kamus Bahasa Cirebon-Indonesia. Jakarta:PPPB

Nardiati, Sri, 1995. Sistem Morfemis Nomina Bahasa Jawa-Indonesia. Jakarta: PPPB.

Patmadiwiria, Munadi. 1977. Kamus Dialek Jawa Banten-Indonesia. Jakarta: PPPB.

Poedjosoedarmo, Soepomo, dkk. 1979. Morfologi Bahasa Jawa. Jakarta: PPPB

Soedjiatno, Et.Al. 1984. Kata Tugas Bahasa Jawa Dialek Jawa Timur. Jakarta: PPPB.

Soedhito et. Al. 1984. Struktur bahasa Jawa dialek Tengger. Jakarta: PPPB.

Soetoko, Et.Al. 1981. Geografi Dialek Banyuwangi. Jakarta: PPPB.

Soetoko, Et.Al. 1984. Geografi Dialek Bahasa Jawa di Kabupaten Surabaya. Jakarta: PPPB.

Sudaryono, 1988. Geografi Dialek Bahasa Jawa Kudus. Jakarta: PPPB.

Sugono, Dendy. 1985. Verba Transitif Dialek Osing: Analisis Tagememik. Jakarta: PPPB.

Suwadji. 1981. Struktur dialek bahasa Jawa di Pesisir Utara Jawa Tengah. Jakarta: PPPB.

Old Javanese Resources (See references therein for an extensive list)

Creese, Helen.  2001.  Old Javanese Studies: A Review of the Field.  In KITLV 157.1 3-    33.

Zoetmulder, P.J. 1982. Old Javanese-English Dictionary. Leiden: ‘S-Gravenhage—Martinus Nijhoff.

Zoetmulder, P.J. 1983. Kalangwan. 2nd ed. Djambatan: Yogyakarta.

Zurbuchen, Mary S. 1976. Introduction to Old Javanese Language and Literature. Ann Arbor: Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, UM

Dictionaries and Grammars, Textbooks

Egner, D.W. 1920. English Javanese vocabulary. Amsterdam: Hollandsch-Amerikaansche Plantage.

Horne, Elinor Clark.  1961.  Beginning Javanese.  Yale University Press: New Haven.

Horne, Elinor Clark.  1963.  Intermediate Javanese.  Yale University Press: New Haven.

Horne, Elinor Clark.  1974.  Javanese-English Dictionary.  Yale University Press: New Haven.

Favre, L’abbé P. 1866. Grammaire javanaise. Paris: L’imprimerie Impériale.

Favre, L’abbé P. 1870. Dictionnaire javanais-français. Vienna: Imprimerie impériale et royale.

Keeler, Ward.  1984.  Javanese: A Cultural Approach.  University of Ohio Press: Columbia.

Robson, Stuart. 2002. Javanese Grammar for Students, 2nd ed. Clayton: Monash Asia Inst.

Robson, Stuart, and Singgih Wibisono. 2002. Javanese English Dictionary. Hong Kong: Periplus.


Javanese within typology

Dahl, Östen. 1985. Tense and aspect systems. Oxford; New York: Blackwell.

Peranakan Javanese

See David Moeljadi’s website